Document

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 1, 2019.
Registration No. 333-
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
46-3915846
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
40 Erie Street, Suite 110
Cambridge, MA 02139
(Address of principal executive offices)
(617) 337-4701
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Hugh O’Dowd
President and Chief Executive Officer
Neon Therapeutics, Inc.
40 Erie Street, Suite 110
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 337-4701
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
With copies to:
Mitchell S. Bloom, Esq.
Arthur R. McGivern, Esq.
Jesse Nevarez, Esq.
Goodwin Procter LLP
100 Northern Avenue
Boston, MA 02210
(617) 570-1000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: x
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
x
Smaller reporting company
x
 
 
Emerging growth company
x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. x



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Amount
to be
Registered(1)
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit(2)
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(3)
Amount of
Registration Fee(4)
Common Stock(5)
 
 
 
 
Preferred Stock(6)
 
 
 
 
Debt Securities(7)
 
 
 
 
Warrants(8)
 
 
 
 
Units(9)
 
 
 
 
Total Offering
$200,000,000
N.A.
$200,000,000
$24,240
Total Registration Fee
 
 
$200,000,000
$24,240
___________________
(1)
The amount to be registered consists of up to $200,000,000 of an indeterminate amount of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. There is also being registered hereunder such currently indeterminate number of (i) shares of common stock or other securities of the registrant as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) shares of preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units as may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with the other securities registered hereunder.
(2)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
(3)
Estimated solely for purposes of computing the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for (i) common stock or other securities of the registrant that may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units that may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(4)
The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
(5)
Including such indeterminate amount of common stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(6)
Including such indeterminate amount of preferred stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(7)
Including such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(8)
Including such indeterminate number of warrants or other rights, including without limitation share purchase or subscription rights, as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices.
(9)
Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in two or more securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.
THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.



EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:
a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $200,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations; and
a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or the Sales Agreement, entered into with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered by us pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the Sales Agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the Sales Agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $200,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., any portion of the $50,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the Sales Agreement, the full $200,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings by us pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.



The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION,
DATED JULY 1, 2019.
PROSPECTUS
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=8
$200,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $200,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings in amounts at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.
We may offer these securities separately or together in units. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will specify the terms of the securities being offered. We may sell these securities to or through underwriters or dealers and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions, or discount arrangements, in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this document and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NTGN.” On June 28, 2019, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $4.74 per share.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus beginning on page 2 and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this Prospectus is             , 2019



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $200,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 33 of this prospectus.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO OFFER AND SELL SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL PROSPECTUS OR A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to the “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Neon Therapeutics, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.

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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks referenced below and described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference and (iii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section above titled “Risk Factors.”
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;
our ability and the potential to successfully manufacture and supply our product candidates for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;
the potential for our identified research priorities to advance our platform, programs or product candidates;
the ability and willingness of our third-party research institution collaborators to continue research and development activities relating to our product candidates;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our lead product candidate, NEO-PV-01 and any other product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;
the ability to license additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and to comply with our existing license agreements;
our ability to commercialize our products in light of the intellectual property rights of others;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates;
our plans to research and develop our product candidates;
the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;
our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates and any other approved product;

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the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;
our ability to produce our products or product candidates with advantages in turnaround times or manufacturing cost in an economically viable manner;
the success of competing therapies that are or may become available and changes in the standard of care;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our ability to continue as a going concern;
the impact of laws and regulations;
our use of the proceeds from our initial public offering;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act; and
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates.
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

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THE COMPANY
We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company and a leader in the field of neoantigen-targeted therapies, dedicated to transforming the treatment of cancer by directing the immune system towards neoantigens. Genetic mutations, which are a hallmark of cancer, can result in specific immune targets called neoantigens. The presence of neoantigens in cancer cells and their absence in normal cells makes them compelling, untapped targets for cancer therapy. By directing the immune system towards these targets, we believe our neoantigen-targeted therapies will offer a new level of patient and tumor specificity in the field of cancer immunotherapy that will drive a strong risk-benefit profile to dramatically improve patient outcomes.
We aim to lead a paradigm shift in the treatment of cancer patients towards an era of truly personal immuno-oncology therapies. Our founders have done pioneering work in immuno-oncology, including work that resulted in a class of immunotherapy known as checkpoint inhibitors, which aim to reactivate the immune system to kill cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated potent efficacy in cancers with higher rates of genetic mutations, or mutational burden, which provide a greater diversity of neoantigen targets. However, even in these tumor types, the majority of patients do not respond to treatment. Our development strategy leverages multiple neoantigen modalities, including vaccines and T cell therapies, to maximize the potential reach of our therapies. By directing the immune system against neoantigen targets, our vaccines have the potential to improve patient outcomes across both checkpoint-responsive and unresponsive disease, and our T cell therapies have the potential to unlock the potency of cell therapies in solid tumors.
NEO-PV-01, our personal neoantigen vaccine, is custom-designed and manufactured based on the unique mutational fingerprint of each individual patient. This technology was developed based on more than a decade of work by our founders at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, or the DFCI, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, or the Broad, which culminated in an initial clinical trial reported in Nature in July 2017. This trial demonstrated the ability of a personal neoantigen vaccine to generate highly specific immune responses in six patients with stage III/IV melanoma treated in the adjuvant setting, with all six patients disease-free at a median of 20 months after initiating vaccination. NEO-PV-01 is currently being evaluated in multiple Phase 1b clinical trials. The clinical data we presented in October and November 2018 and March 2019 from our Phase 1b clinical trial in combination with nivolumab in metastatic melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and bladder cancer demonstrates that the therapy has been well-tolerated and has been able to direct the immune system against neoantigens in advanced metastatic disease. Furthermore, we have observed both evidence of immune pressure on tumors and of tumor cell killing. We believe these findings provide emerging proof of mechanism and will potentially lead to us correlating baseline disease characteristics and mechanism of action with clinical response as the study matures.
NEO-PTC-01, our personal neoantigen T cell therapy, consists of multiple T cell populations that are generated to target each individual patient’s unique set of neoantigens. Data presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer meeting in November 2018 and the American Association of Cancer Research in March 2019, as well as our ongoing research, give us added confidence that we can reliably generate multiple enriched neoantigen-specific T cell populations that are capable of killing tumor cells. We believe NEO-PTC-01 has several significant advantages that could overcome the challenges of other cell therapies in the solid tumor setting. To this end, we are focusing the initial clinical development of NEO-PTC-01 in solid tumors for patients who are refractory to checkpoint inhibitors. We expect to file a clinical trial application, or CTA, in Europe in the second half of 2019 to evaluate NEO-PTC-01 in the solid tumor setting.
In parallel to our personal therapies, we are advancing additional therapies that use a precision medicine approach. These include multiple neoantigen-targeted therapies that direct the immune system towards prevalent mutations that are shared across patients in specific tumor types. We intend to develop product candidates targeting shared neoantigens using both vaccine and T cell modalities. Our first product candidate using this approach, NEO-SV-01, is a neoantigen vaccine for the treatment of a genetically defined subset of hormone-receptor-positive, or HR+, breast cancer, for which we filed an Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, in June 2019. We continue to make significant progress with respect to our precision T cell approach and have assembled libraries of high-quality T cell receptors, or TCRs, against various shared neoantigens across common human leukocyte antigens, or HLAs.

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Our product candidate pipeline is generated using our proprietary neoantigen platform, which continuously improves as our product candidates generate data. This platform comprises four key elements: our Real-time Epitope Computation for ONcology, or RECON, bioinformatics engine; NEO-STIM, our proprietary high throughput T cell induction protocol; our deep capabilities in peptide chemistry; and our immune-monitoring expertise. At the core of our neoantigen platform is RECON, which uses a proprietary combination of algorithms designed to predict the most therapeutically-relevant neoantigen targets associated with each patient’s tumor. As detailed in a February 2017 paper in Immunity, our approach to bioinformatics uses a proprietary allele-specific, or mono-allelic, approach that allows us to predict neoantigens that are presented by specific alleles relevant for each patient. Using this approach and with our growing proteomic database of greater than 1.2 million unique HLA bound peptides, we have generated high quality data sets that have resulted in positive predictive values greater than 50%, exceeding standard approaches by greater than ten times when using a recall-based measurement of performance. We intend to strengthen our leading position in bioinformatics and identification of therapeutic neoantigens by using data generated from our ongoing and future clinical trials, coupled with our machine learning expertise, to continue to refine RECON’s neoantigen prediction algorithms.
We have strategically chosen to utilize immunogenically-designed peptides for neoantigen targeting in our product candidates in order to directly replicate the body’s natural immune processes. Peptides have demonstrated broad immunogenicity and safety and we believe this choice reduces both complexity and risk within our platform. From inception, we have also been focused on the unique supply chain requirements of our personal neoantigen therapies. Accordingly, we have developed automated peptide manufacturing capabilities that we believe provide advantages in both turnaround times and manufacturing costs for our product candidates.
To date, the Company has funded its operations with net proceeds of $89.9 million from its IPO, as well as an aggregate of $161.1 million of net proceeds from sales of the Company’s preferred stock and convertible debt. Since inception, the Company has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations in each period and on an aggregate basis. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $194.8 million and $173.8 million, respectively. The Company expects its operating losses and negative operating cash flows to continue into the foreseeable future as it continues to develop, manufacture and commercialize its products.
As of March 31, 2019, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $81.3 million. Based on our current operating plan, we expect that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into June 2020. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our research or development programs or be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40), or, ASC 205-40, we have the responsibility to evaluate whether conditions or events raise substantial doubt about our ability to meet our future financial obligations as they become due within one year after the date the financial statements are issued. Under ASC 205-40, this evaluation initially cannot take into consideration the potential mitigating effects of plans that have not been fully implemented as of the date the financial statements are issued.  Since we currently anticipate that our existing capital resources will enable us to meet our planned operational expenses and capital expenditures, based on our current operating plans, only into June 2020, we have determined that this cash runway of less than 12 months, along with our accumulated deficit, history of losses and future expected losses, meet the ASC 205-40 standard for raising substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date of this registration statement. While we have plans in place to mitigate this risk, which primarily consist of raising additional capital through a combination of equity or debt financings, and, depending on the availability and level of additional financings, potentially new collaborations and reducing cash expenditures, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in these mitigation efforts.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. We would cease to be an emerging growth company on the date that is the earliest of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) December 31, 2023;

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(iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies until the fiscal year following the determination that our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is more than $250 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenues are more than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is more than $700 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in October 2013 under the previous name, Onco3, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, MA 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 337-4701. Our website address is www.neontherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus and you should not consider any information on or that can be accessed through our website as part of this prospectus. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NTGN.”
We are the owner of the NEON THERAPEUTICS, RECON, NEO-STIM, Precision NEO-STIM and MAPTAC trademarks, as well as certain other trademarks, including design versions of some of these trademarks. The symbols ™ and ® are not used in connection with the presentation of these trademarks in this prospectus and their absence does not indicate a lack of trademark rights. Certain other trademarks used in this prospectus are the property of third-party trademark owners and may be presented with or without trademark references.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses or assets, services or technologies, expansion of our technology or manufacturing infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

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SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities offered.
We may sell the securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents, directly to purchasers or through a combination of any of these methods of sale or as otherwise set forth below under the heading “Plan of Distribution.” We, as well as any agents acting on our behalf, reserve the sole right to accept and to reject in whole or in part any proposed purchase of securities. Any prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other entities involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock and preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law. The terms of our common stock and preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.
Authorized Capital Stock
Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.
As of March 31, 2019, 28,331,344 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 58 stockholders of record, and no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding.
Common Stock
The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. All outstanding shares are fully paid and non-assessable.
When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and non-assessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and non-assessable and will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights.
The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover

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proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Registration Rights
Pursuant to the terms of our investors’ rights agreement, dated as of December 28, 2016, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act until the earliest of (a) the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, (b) a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, or (c) the date on which such holder’s registrable securities could be sold without any restriction on volume or manner of sale on any three-month period under Rule 144 or any successor rule, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.
Demand Registration Rights
The holders of 9,341,636 shares of our common stock are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of the holders of at least 25% of our outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, that would result in an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $3.0 million, to file a registration statement and use best efforts to effect the registration of all or a portion of these shares for public resale. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.
Short-Form Registration Rights
Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of at least 10% of the holders of registrable securities to sell registrable securities at an aggregate offering amount, net of selling expenses, of at least $1.0 million, we will be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to effect a registration of those shares. We are required to effect only two registrations in any 12-month period pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement. The right to have those shares registered on Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations.
Piggyback Registration Rights
Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of the registrable securities are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares that we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering.
Indemnification
Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

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Expiration of Registration Rights
The demand registration rights and short form registration rights granted under the investors’ rights agreement will terminate on (a) the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, which is June 27, 2024, (b) a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, or (c) at such time after this offering when the holders’ shares may be sold without restriction pursuant to Rule 144 within a three-month period.
Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law
Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.
Board Composition and Filling Vacancies
Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office, even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.
No Written Consent of Stockholders
Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This requirement may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.
Meetings of Stockholders
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.
Advance Notice Requirements
Our by-laws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our by-laws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

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Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our by-laws and certificate of incorporation must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our by-laws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the by-laws, and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
Our certificate of incorporation provides for 10,000,000 authorized shares of undesignated preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Choice of Forum
Our amended and restated bylaws provides that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of or based on a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers and employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, employees or stockholders arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to the Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. This exclusive forum provision will not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. We have chosen the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for these causes of action because our principal executive offices are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. On December 19, 2018, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware issued a decision declaring that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are ineffective and invalid under Delaware law. On January 17, 2019, the decision was appealed to the Delaware Supreme Court. While the Delaware Supreme Court dismissed the appeal on jurisdictional grounds, we expect that the appeal will be re-filed after the Court of Chancery issues a final judgment. Unless and until the Court of Chancery’s decision is reversed by the Delaware Supreme Court or otherwise abrogated, we do not intend to enforce our federal forum selection provision designating the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for Securities Act claims. In the event that the Delaware Supreme Court affirms the Court of Chancery’s decision or otherwise

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determines that federal forum selection provisions are invalid, our board of directors intends to amend promptly our amended and restated by-laws to remove our federal forum selection bylaw provision.  As a result of the Court of Chancery’s decision or a decision by the Delaware Supreme Court affirming the Court of Chancery’s decision, or if the federal forum selection provision is otherwise found inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We recognize that the federal district court forum selection clause may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert the provision is not enforceable and may impose more general additional litigation costs in pursuing any these claims, particularly if the stockholders do not reside in or near the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Additionally, the forum selection clauses in our amended and restated bylaws may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us. Alternatively, if the federal district court forum selection provision is found inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:
before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or
at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;
subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

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subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NTGN.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 150 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021, and its telephone number is (800) 962-4284.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to senior debt securities and subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. Each series of debt securities may have different terms. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered.
We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information. As used in this prospectus, the term “debt securities” includes the debt securities being offered by this prospectus and all other debt securities issued by us under the indentures.
General
The indentures:
do not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue;
allow us to issue debt securities in one or more series;
do not require us to issue all of the debt securities of a series at the same time; and
allow us to reopen a series to issue additional debt securities without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series.
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will be unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. Payments on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as described under “—Subordination” below and in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each indenture provides that we may, but need not, designate more than one trustee under an indenture. Any trustee under an indenture may resign or be removed and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to the series of debt securities administered by the resigning or removed trustee. If two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the applicable indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, any action described in this prospectus to be taken by each trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the applicable indenture.

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The prospectus supplement for each offering will provide the following terms, where applicable:
the title of the debt securities and whether they are senior or subordinated;
the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities outstanding as of the most recent practicable date and any limit on their aggregate principal amount, including the aggregate principal amount of debt securities authorized;
the price at which the debt securities will be issued, expressed as a percentage of the principal and, if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or, if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into common stock or other securities of ours or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
if convertible, the terms on which such debt securities are convertible, including the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period and any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of common stock or other securities of ours received on conversion;
the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;
the fixed or variable interest rate or rates of the debt securities, or the method by which the interest rate or rates is determined;
the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which interest will accrue;
the dates on which interest will be payable;
the record dates for interest payment dates, or the method by which such dates will be determined;
the persons to whom interest will be payable;
the place or places where the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, the debt securities will be payable;
where the debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or conversion or exchange;
the times, prices and other terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
any obligation we have to redeem, repay or repurchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the times and prices at which we must redeem, repay or repurchase the debt securities as a result of such obligation;
the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and payable if other than United States dollars, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies and the terms and conditions relating thereto, and the manner of determining the equivalent of such foreign currency in United States dollars;
whether the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, the debt securities of the series are to be payable, at our election or at the election of a holder, in a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or stated to be payable, and other related terms and conditions;

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whether the debt securities will be in registered form, bearer form, or both, and (i) if in registered form, the person to whom any interest shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, or (ii) if in bearer form, the manner in which, or the person to whom, any interest on the security shall be payable if otherwise than upon presentation and surrender upon maturity;
any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of securities in bearer form and the terms upon which securities in bearer form of the series may be exchanged for securities in registered form of the series and vice versa, if permitted by applicable laws and regulations;
whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable in permanent global form with or without coupons and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global security may, or shall be required to, exchange their interests for other debt securities of the series, and the manner in which interest shall be paid;
the identity of the depositary for securities in registered form, if such series are to be issuable as a global security;
the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions described in this prospectus or in the applicable indenture;
whether and under what circumstances we will pay any additional amounts on the debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge;
whether and under what circumstances the debt securities being offered are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours, as the case may be, including the conversion price or rate and the manner or calculation thereof;
the name of the applicable trustee and the nature of any material relationship with us or any of our affiliates, and the percentage of debt securities of the class necessary to require the trustee to take action; and
any other terms of such debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the applicable indenture.
We may issue debt securities that provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities. We refer to any such debt securities throughout this prospectus as “original issue discount securities.” The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the United States federal income tax consequences and other relevant considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.
Except as described under “—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” or as may be set forth in any prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that (i) would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or (ii) would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of (a) a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us, or (b) a change of control or reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of the debt securities. In the future, we may enter into transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation, that may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities, by, among other things, substantially reducing or eliminating our assets.
Our governing instruments do not define the term “substantially all” as it relates to the sale of assets. Additionally, Delaware cases interpreting the term “substantially all” rely upon the facts and circumstances of each particular case. Consequently, to determine whether a sale of “substantially all” of our assets has occurred, a holder of debt securities must review the financial and other information that we have disclosed to the public.

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We will provide you with more information in the applicable prospectus supplement regarding any deletions, modifications, or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.
Payment
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any series of the debt securities will be payable by mailing a check to the address of the person entitled to it as it appears in the applicable register for the debt securities or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States.
All monies that we pay to a paying agent or a trustee for the payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any debt security will be repaid to us if unclaimed at the end of two years after the obligation underlying payment becomes due and payable. After funds have been returned to us, the holder of the debt security may look only to us for payment, without payment of interest for the period which we hold the funds.
Denomination, Interest, Registration and Transfer
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.
Interest on the debt securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.
Subject to the limitations imposed upon debt securities that are evidenced by a computerized entry in the records of a depository company rather than by physical delivery of a note, a holder of debt securities of any series may:
exchange them for any authorized denomination of other debt securities of the same series and of a like aggregate principal amount and kind upon surrender of such debt securities at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose; and
surrender them for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose.
Every debt security surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange must be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer satisfactory to the applicable trustee or transfer agent. Payment of a service charge will not be required for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we or the trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents for any series of debt securities.
Neither we, nor any trustee, will be required to:
issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day that the notice of redemption of any debt securities selected for redemption is mailed and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing;
register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; and
issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of such debt security not to be so repaid.

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Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets
The indentures provide that we may, without the consent of the holders of any outstanding debt securities, (i) consolidate with, (ii) sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or (iii) merge with or into, any other entity, provided that:
either we are the continuing entity, or the successor entity, if other than us, assumes the obligations (a) to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, all of the debt securities and (b) to duly perform and observe all of the covenants and conditions contained in the applicable indenture;
after giving effect to the transaction, there is no event of default under the applicable indentures and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, occurs and continues; and
an officers’ certificate and legal opinion covering such conditions are delivered to each applicable trustee.
Events of Default, Notice and Waiver
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, when we refer to “events of default” as defined in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities, we mean:
default in the payment of any installment of interest on any debt security of such series continuing for 90 days unless such date has been extended or deferred;
default in the payment of principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, any debt security of such series when due and payable unless such date has been extended or deferred;
default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty in the debt securities or in the indenture by us continuing for 90 days after written notice described below;
bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us; and
any other event of default provided with respect to a particular series of debt securities.
If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to debt securities of any series outstanding, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable. If the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof to be due and payable. However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:
we have deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal, any premium or make-whole amount, interest and, to the extent permitted by law, interest on overdue installment of interest, plus applicable fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee; and
all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, or a specified portion thereof, and any premium or make-whole amount, have been cured or waived.
The indentures require each trustee to give notice to the holders of debt securities within the later of 90 days after an event of default and 30 days after the event of default is actually known to a responsible officer of such

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trustee, unless such default has been cured or waived. However, the trustee may withhold notice if specified persons of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of debt securities.
The indentures provide that holders of debt securities of any series may not institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless the trustee fails to act for a period of 90 days after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. However, this provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.
The indentures provide that, subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in the case of a default, a trustee has no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which:
is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture;
may involve the trustee in personal liability; or
may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of the series not joining the proceeding.
Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of our several specified officers, stating whether or not that officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture. If the officer has knowledge of any default, the notice must specify the nature and status of the default.
Modification of the Indentures
The indentures provide that modifications and amendments may be made only with the consent of the affected holders of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities issued under that indenture:
We and our respective trustee may make modifications and amendments of an indenture without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:
to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under such indenture;
to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;
to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in such indenture;
to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;
to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of debt securities;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any securityholder in any material respect;
to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series;

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to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under an indenture by more than one trustee; or
to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in an indenture, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under such indenture.
Voting
The indentures provide that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver under the indentures or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities, the principal amount of an original issue discount security that shall be deemed to be outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof.
Subordination
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, subordinated debt securities will be subject to the following subordination provisions.
Upon any distribution to our creditors in a liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on any subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the applicable indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior debt. However, our obligation to make payments of the principal of and interest on such subordinated debt securities otherwise will not be affected. No payment of principal or interest will be permitted to be made on subordinated debt securities at any time if a default on senior debt exists that permits the holders of such senior debt to accelerate its maturity and the default is the subject of judicial proceedings or we receive notice of the default. After all senior debt is paid in full and until the subordinated debt securities are paid in full, holders of subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of holders of senior debt to the extent that distributions otherwise payable to holders of subordinated debt securities have been applied to the payment of senior debt. The subordinated indenture will not restrict the amount of senior debt or other indebtedness of ours. As a result of these subordination provisions, in the event of a distribution of assets upon insolvency, holders of subordinated debt securities may recover less, ratably, than our general creditors.
No restrictions will be included in any indenture relating to subordinated debt securities upon the creation of additional senior debt.
If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of subordinated debt securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated in this prospectus by reference will set forth the approximate amount of senior debt outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.
Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures allow us to discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under any indenture when:
either (i) all securities of such series have already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation; or (ii) all securities of such series have not already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation but (a) have become due and payable, (b) will become due and payable within one year, or (c) if redeemable at our option, are to be redeemed within one year, and we have irrevocably deposited with the applicable trustee, in trust, funds in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable, an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on such debt securities in respect of principal and any premium or make-whole amount, and

22


interest to the date of such deposit if such debt securities have become due and payable or, if they have not, to the stated maturity or redemption date;
we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable; and
an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating the conditions to discharging the debt securities have been satisfied has been delivered to the trustee.
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures provide that, upon our irrevocable deposit with the applicable trustee, in trust, of an amount, in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or government obligations, or both, applicable to such debt securities, which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor, the issuing company shall be released from its obligations with respect to such debt securities under the applicable indenture or, if provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, its obligations with respect to any other covenant, and any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute an event of default with respect to such debt securities.
Notwithstanding the above, we may not elect to defease and be discharged from the obligation to pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of particular events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on such debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of such debt securities, or to hold monies for payment in trust.
The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting such defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include whether the debt securities are convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of ours, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the issuing company’s option or the option of the holders, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion.
No Recourse
No recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If and to the extent indicated in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.
General
We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.
We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:
the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;
the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at and currency in which this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;
in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;
the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;
the manner of exercise;
the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

24


the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;
federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;
the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular prospectus supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to those units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.
Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:
the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
any provisions of the governing unit agreement;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;
any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and
any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units. 
The provisions described in this section, as well as those described above under the heading “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit to the extent relevant based on the composition of the unit and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of a particular series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unit Agreements
We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:
Modification without Consent
We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:
to cure any ambiguity, including modifying any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;
to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or
to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the affected holders in any material respect.
We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.
Modification with Consent
We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:
impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or
reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.
Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:
If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or
If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.
These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.
In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.
Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act
No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

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Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default
The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with or sell our assets substantially as an entirety to another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.
The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.
Governing Law
The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue each unit in global – i.e., book-entry – form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.
If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them:
The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or may request that their units be combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount of units held by a Holder is not changed.
Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.
Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.
If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.
Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

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Payments and Notices
In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, if required, in any of the following ways: (1) to or through underwriters or dealers; (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates; (3) through agents; or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices or negotiated prices, either:
on or through the facilities of The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or
to or through a market maker otherwise than on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.
In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such an offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.
The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:
the name of the agent or any underwriters;
the public offering or purchase price;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;
all other items constituting underwriting compensation;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and
any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.
If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.
In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

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If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.
If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.
Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements that they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:
the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and
if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.
Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may over allot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading market for any of the securities.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, who will be named in the prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an emphasis of matter paragraph relating to the Company's requirement for additional financing to fund future operations as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).
We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock” above. We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock that has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed to Neon Therapeutics, Inc., 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Attention: Investor Relations, and our website is located at www.neontherapeutics.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 11, 2019;
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed), which was filed with the SEC on April 26, 2019;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 13, 2019;

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our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 22, 2019, and June 20, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 22, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.
Upon request, either orally or in writing, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Neon Therapeutics, Inc., 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Attention: Investor Relations.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

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http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=8



$200,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
PROSPECTUS






            , 2019
We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to give any information or represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not offer to sell any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus, nor any sale made hereunder, shall create any implication that the information in this prospectus is correct after the date hereof.



The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)
Dated July 1, 2019
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=8
Up to $50,000,000
Common Stock
We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or Sales Agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald, acting as sales agent.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NTGN.” On June 28, 2019, the closing price of our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $4.74 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cantor Fitzgerald is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent on a best efforts basis using commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cantor Fitzgerald and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per common stock sold under the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-21 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cantor Fitzgerald. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor Fitzgerald with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-7 of this prospectus and in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=9
The date of this prospectus is             , 2019



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
We are responsible for the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any related free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to give you any other information and we take no responsibility for any other information that others may give you. If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell or solicitations of offers to purchase the securities offered by this documentation are unlawful or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you. The information contained in this document speaks only as of the date of this document, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.
If the information contained in this prospectus differs or varies from the information contained in any document incorporated by reference herein that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a subsequently filed document deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus), the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or contained in any permitted free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We and the sales agent take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide.
The information contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein is accurate only as of their respective dates, regardless of the time of delivery of any such document or the time of any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus in making your investment decision. You should read this prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein, the additional information described under the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, before investing in our common stock.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to that agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to those agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, those representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, those representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
We are the owner of the NEON THERAPEUTICS, RECON, NEO-STIM, Precision NEO-STIM and MAPTAC trademarks, as well as certain other trademarks, including design versions of some of these trademarks. Other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

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We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where such offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of our common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to the “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Neon Therapeutics, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiary.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information about us and this offering and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and accompanying notes.
Company Overview
We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company and a leader in the field of neoantigen-targeted therapies, dedicated to transforming the treatment of cancer by directing the immune system towards neoantigens. Genetic mutations, which are a hallmark of cancer, can result in specific immune targets called neoantigens. The presence of neoantigens in cancer cells and their absence in normal cells makes them compelling, untapped targets for cancer therapy. By directing the immune system towards these targets, we believe our neoantigen-targeted therapies will offer a new level of patient and tumor specificity in the field of cancer immunotherapy that will drive a strong risk-benefit profile to dramatically improve patient outcomes.
We aim to lead a paradigm shift in the treatment of cancer patients towards an era of truly personal immuno-oncology therapies. Our founders have done pioneering work in immuno-oncology, including work that resulted in a class of immunotherapy known as checkpoint inhibitors, which aim to reactivate the immune system to kill cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated potent efficacy in cancers with higher rates of genetic mutations, or mutational burden, which provide a greater diversity of neoantigen targets. However, even in these tumor types, the majority of patients do not respond to treatment. Our development strategy leverages multiple neoantigen modalities, including vaccines and T cell therapies, to maximize the potential reach of our therapies. By directing the immune system against neoantigen targets, our vaccines have the potential to improve patient outcomes across both checkpoint-responsive and unresponsive disease, and our T cell therapies have the potential to unlock the potency of cell therapies in solid tumors.
NEO-PV-01, our personal neoantigen vaccine, is custom-designed and manufactured based on the unique mutational fingerprint of each individual patient. This technology was developed based on more than a decade of work by our founders at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, or the DFCI, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, or the Broad, which culminated in an initial clinical trial reported in Nature in July 2017. This trial demonstrated the ability of a personal neoantigen vaccine to generate highly specific immune responses in six patients with stage III/IV melanoma treated in the adjuvant setting, with all six patients disease-free at a median of 20 months after initiating vaccination. NEO-PV-01 is currently being evaluated in multiple Phase 1b clinical trials. The clinical data we presented in October and November 2018 and March 2019 from our Phase 1b clinical trial in combination with nivolumab in metastatic melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and bladder cancer demonstrates that the therapy has been well-tolerated and has been able to direct the immune system against neoantigens in advanced metastatic disease. Furthermore, we have observed both evidence of immune pressure on tumors and of tumor cell killing. We believe these findings provide emerging proof of mechanism and will potentially lead to us correlating baseline disease characteristics and mechanism of action with clinical response as the study matures.
NEO-PTC-01, our personal neoantigen T cell therapy, consists of multiple T cell populations that are generated to target each individual patient’s unique set of neoantigens. Data presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer meeting in November 2018 and the American Association of Cancer Research in March 2019, as well as our ongoing research, give us added confidence that we can reliably generate multiple enriched neoantigen-specific T cell populations that are capable of killing tumor cells. We believe NEO-PTC-01 has several significant advantages that could overcome the challenges of other cell therapies in the solid tumor setting. To this end, we are focusing the initial clinical development of NEO-PTC-01 in solid tumors for patients who are refractory to checkpoint inhibitors. We expect to file a clinical trial application, or CTA, in Europe in the second half of 2019 to evaluate NEO-PTC-01 in the solid tumor setting.
In parallel to our personal therapies, we are advancing additional therapies that use a precision medicine approach. These include multiple neoantigen-targeted therapies that direct the immune system towards prevalent

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mutations that are shared across patients in specific tumor types. We intend to develop product candidates targeting shared neoantigens using both vaccine and T cell modalities. Our first product candidate using this approach, NEO-SV-01, is a neoantigen vaccine for the treatment of a genetically defined subset of hormone-receptor-positive, or HR+, breast cancer, for which we filed an Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, in June 2019. We continue to make significant progress with respect to our precision T cell approach and have assembled libraries of high-quality T cell receptors, or TCRs, against various shared neoantigens across common human leukocyte antigens, or HLAs.
Our product candidate pipeline is generated using our proprietary neoantigen platform, which continuously improves as our product candidates generate data. This platform comprises four key elements: our Real-time Epitope Computation for ONcology, or RECON, bioinformatics engine; NEO-STIM, our proprietary high throughput T cell induction protocol; our deep capabilities in peptide chemistry; and our immune-monitoring expertise. At the core of our neoantigen platform is RECON, which uses a proprietary combination of algorithms designed to predict the most therapeutically-relevant neoantigen targets associated with each patient’s tumor. As detailed in a February 2017 paper in Immunity, our approach to bioinformatics uses a proprietary allele-specific, or mono-allelic, approach that allows us to predict neoantigens that are presented by specific alleles relevant for each patient. Using this approach and with our growing proteomic database of greater than 1.2 million unique HLA bound peptides, we have generated high quality data sets that have resulted in positive predictive values greater than 50%, exceeding standard approaches by greater than ten times when using a recall-based measurement of performance. We intend to strengthen our leading position in bioinformatics and identification of therapeutic neoantigens by using data generated from our ongoing and future clinical trials, coupled with our machine learning expertise, to continue to refine RECON’s neoantigen prediction algorithms.
We have strategically chosen to utilize immunogenically-designed peptides for neoantigen targeting in our product candidates in order to directly replicate the body’s natural immune processes. Peptides have demonstrated broad immunogenicity and safety and we believe this choice reduces both complexity and risk within our platform. From inception, we have also been focused on the unique supply chain requirements of our personal neoantigen therapies. Accordingly, we have developed automated peptide manufacturing capabilities that we believe provide advantages in both turnaround times and manufacturing costs for our product candidates.
Additional Information
To date, the Company has funded its operations with net proceeds of $89.9 million from its IPO, as well as an aggregate of $161.1 million of net proceeds from sales of the Company’s preferred stock and convertible debt. Since inception, the Company has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations in each period and on an aggregate basis. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $194.8 million and $173.8 million, respectively. The Company expects its operating losses and negative operating cash flows to continue into the foreseeable future as it continues to develop, manufacture and commercialize its products.
As of March 31, 2019, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $81.3 million. Based on our current operating plan, we expect that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into June 2020. If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our research or development programs or be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40), or, ASC 205-40, we have the responsibility to evaluate whether conditions or events raise substantial doubt about our ability to meet our future financial obligations as they become due within one year after the date the financial statements are issued. Under ASC 205-40, this evaluation initially cannot take into consideration the potential mitigating effects of plans that have not been fully implemented as of the date the financial statements are issued.  Since we currently anticipate that our existing capital resources will enable us to meet our planned operational expenses and capital expenditures, based on our current operating plans, only into June 2020, we have determined that this cash runway of less than 12 months, along with our accumulated deficit, history of losses and future expected losses, meet the ASC 205-40 standard for raising substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a

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going concern within one year from the date of this registration statement. While we have plans in place to mitigate this risk, which primarily consist of raising additional capital through a combination of equity or debt financings, and, depending on the availability and level of additional financings, potentially new collaborations and reducing cash expenditures, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in these mitigation efforts.
Company Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in October 2013 under our previous name, Onco3, Inc. Our executive offices are located at 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, MA 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 337-4701. Our website address is www.neontherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on or that can be accessed through our website as part of this prospectus. You should not rely on any such information in making your decision whether to purchase our common stock. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NTGN.”
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our most recently completed fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable, in general, to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These provisions include:
reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;
exemption from the non-binding stockholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements; and
exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting.
We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues as of the end of a fiscal year, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates as of any December 31 before that time or if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year-period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions.
The JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies until the fiscal year following the determination that our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is more than $250 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenues are more than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is more than $700 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.

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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us:
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.
 
 
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering:
Up to 38,879,867 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 10,548,523 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $4.74 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 28, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on how many shares of our common stock we choose to sell and the prices at which such sales occur.
 
 
Plan of Distribution:
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or other existing trading market for our common stock through our sales agent, Cantor Fitzgerald. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-21 of this prospectus.
 
 
Use of Proceeds:
Our management will retain broad discretion regarding the allocation and use of the net proceeds. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund activities relating to the advancement of our product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, assets, services or technologies, expansion of our technology or manufacturing infrastructure and capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-14 of this prospectus.
 
 
Risk Factors:
Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-7 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
 
 
The Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol:
“NTGN”
All information in this prospectus related to the number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 28,331,344 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019. The number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:
3,564,631 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.85 per share;
484,339 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of March 31, 2019;
375,231 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan; and
553,142 shares of common stock reserved for the future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
Unless otherwise stated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes no exercise of stock options after March 31, 2019 and reflects an assumed public offering price of $4.74, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 28, 2019.

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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, each of which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and all of the other information in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference herein. If any of these risks is realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and could result in a complete loss of your investment.
Risks Related To This Offering and Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock historically has been volatile, which may affect the price at which you could sell any shares of our common stock.
The market price for our common stock historically has been highly volatile and could continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors. The market price for our common stock has varied between a high price of $13.48 on June 28, 2018 and a low price of $4.24 on February 5, 2019 in the twelve-month period ending on June 28, 2019. This volatility may affect the price at which you could sell the shares of our common stock and the sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Our stock price is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including:
the success of competing products or technologies;
results of preclinical studies or clinical trials of our product candidates or those of our competitors;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States, or U.S. and other countries;
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or clinical development programs;
the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or products;
actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
variations in our financial results or the financial results of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares;
changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;
market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;
general economic, industry and market conditions; and

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the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
In addition, companies trading in the stock market in general and The Nasdaq Global Select Market in particular have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies. This type of litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” as well as our existing cash and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding such application. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used effectively. Our management might not apply the net proceeds or our existing cash in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering or our existing cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected results, which could cause our stock price to decline. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term U.S. Treasury securities with insignificant rates of return. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.
If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares.
The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior at the time of sale. Assuming that an aggregate of 10,548,523 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $4.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 28, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50,000,000, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, investors in this offering would experience immediate dilution of $1.39 per share, representing the difference between our as-adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price.
This dilution is due to the substantially lower price paid by some of our investors who purchased shares prior to this offering as compared to the price offered to the public in this offering and the exercise of stock options granted to our employees, directors and consultants. In addition, we have a significant number of stock options and restricted stock units outstanding. The exercise of any of these outstanding options and the settlement of these restricted stock units would result in further dilution. As a result of the dilution to investors purchasing shares in this offering, investors may receive significantly less than the purchase price paid in this offering, if anything, in the event of our liquidation. Further, because we expect we will need to raise additional capital to fund our future activities, we may in the future sell substantial amounts of common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock.
Future issuances of common stock or common stock-related securities, together with the exercise of outstanding stock options, if any, may result in further dilution. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”
Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.
We will require additional capital in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell

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common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time, which may result in material dilution to our investors and existing stockholders and new investors could gain rights superior to our then existing stockholders.
In addition, sales of a substantial number of shares of our outstanding common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Stockholders who had invested in the Company prior to our initial public offering continue to hold a substantial number of shares of our common stock that many of them are now able to sell in the public market. Significant portions of these shares are held by a relatively small number of stockholders. Sales by our stockholders of a substantial number of shares, or the expectation that these sales may occur, could significantly reduce the market price of our common stock.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.
As of March 31, 2019, our executive officers, directors, five percent or greater stockholders and their affiliates beneficially own approximately 72% of our outstanding voting stock. These stockholders will have the ability to influence us through their ownership positions and may be able to determine all matters requiring stockholder approval. For example, these stockholders, acting together, may be able to control elections of directors or approval of any merger, sale of assets or other major corporate transaction. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common stock that you may believe are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that these sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. In addition, the sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely impact its price. As of March 31, 2019, we had outstanding 28,331,344 shares of our common stock and options to purchase 3,564,631 shares of our common stock (of which 856,784 shares were exercisable as of that date). The sale or the availability for sale of a large number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Securities and industry analysts may not publish an adequate amount of research on us, which may negatively impact the trading price for our stock. In addition, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. Further, if our operating results fail to meet the forecasts of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock and currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements that we may enter into may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

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We could be subject to securities class action litigation.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face this type of litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.
Changes in tax law may adversely affect us or our investors.
The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect us or holders of our common stock. In recent years, many such changes have been made and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, was enacted in 2017 and significantly reforms the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The TCJA, among other things, contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, limitation of the tax deduction for net interest expense to 30% of adjusted taxable income (except for certain small businesses), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses from taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks generated in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017 (though any such net operating losses may be carried forward indefinitely), and the modification or repeal of many business deductions and credits (including reducing the business tax credit for certain clinical testing expenses incurred in the testing of certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions generally referred to as “orphan drugs”). It cannot be predicted whether, when, in what form or with what effective dates tax laws, regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or issued, which could result in an increase in our or our shareholders’ tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize or mitigate any adverse effects of changes in tax law.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be reduced or more volatile.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

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We are a “smaller reporting company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are considered a “smaller reporting company” under Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. We are therefore entitled to rely on certain reduced disclosure requirements, such as an exemption from providing selected financial data and executive compensation information. These exemptions and reduced disclosures in our SEC filings due to our status as a smaller reporting company also mean our auditors are not required to review our internal control over financial reporting and may make it harder for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our common stock prices may be more volatile. We will remain a smaller reporting company until our public float exceeds $250 million or our annual revenues exceed $100 million with a public float greater than $700 million.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
We have incurred substantial losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future and we may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until those unused losses expire. As of December 31, 2018, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $117.1 million and $118.7 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2034 (other than any federal net operating losses generated in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017, which are not subject to expiration). As of December 31, 2018, we had federal and state research and development, or R&D, tax credit carryforwards of approximately $5.2 million and $1.5 million, which begin to expire in 2034 and 2029, respectively. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, and other pre-change tax attributes (such as R&D tax credits) to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We may have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of this offering and/or subsequent shifts in our stock ownership (some of which shifts are outside our control). As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change NOLs and R&D tax credits to offset such taxable income and income tax, respectively, could be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply. Accordingly, even if we attain profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes. Under the TCJA, NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 can only offset 80% of taxable income in the year that they are used.
The market price of our common stock may be adversely affected by market conditions affecting the stock markets in general, including price and trading fluctuations on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.
Market conditions may result in volatility in the level of, and fluctuations in, market prices of stocks generally and, in turn, our common stock and sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the market, in each case being unrelated or disproportionate to changes in our operating performance. Concerns over global stability, as well as political and economic conditions in the U.S. and abroad, have contributed to the extreme volatility of the markets, which may have an effect on the market price of our common stock.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the information and documents incorporated by reference herein, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, and in particular those factors referenced in the section titled “Risk Factors.”
This prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and the information and documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;
our ability and the potential to successfully manufacture and supply our product candidates for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;
the potential for our identified research priorities to advance our platform, programs or product candidates;
the ability and willingness of our third-party research institution collaborators to continue research and development activities relating to our product candidates;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our lead product candidate, NEO-PV-01, and any other product candidates and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;
the ability to license additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and to comply with our existing license agreements;
our ability to commercialize our products in light of the intellectual property rights of others;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates;
our plans to research and develop our product candidates;
the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;
our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
future agreements with third parties in connection with the development and/or commercialization of our product candidates and any other approved product;

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the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;
our ability to produce our products or product candidates with advantages in turnaround times or manufacturing cost in an economically viable manner;
the success of competing therapies that are or may become available and changes in the standard of care;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
the impact of laws and regulations;
our use of the proceeds from our initial public offering;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act; and
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates.
These forward-looking statements are neither promises nor guarantees of future performance due to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation the risk factors and cautionary statements described in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically under “Item 1A: Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and the section of the prospectus titled “Risk Factors.”
The forward-looking statements in this prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we assume no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the dates on which they were made.
This prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald as a source of financing. Therefore, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.
We intend to use any net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund activities relating to the advancement of our product candidates and for other general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, assets, services or technologies, expansion of our technology or manufacturing infrastructure and capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.
DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends to our stockholders in the foreseeable future.

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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $82.1 million, or approximately $2.90 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019.
Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in this offering represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. After giving effect to the assumed sale of 10,548,523 shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $4.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on June 28, 2019, and after deduction of commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been approximately $130.3 million, or approximately $3.35 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.45 per share of common stock to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $1.39 per share of common stock to investors participating in this offering at the assumed offering price.
Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:
Assumed offering price per share
 
 
 
$
4.74

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019
$
2.90

 
 
 
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors attributable to this offering
$
0.45

 
 
 
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering
 
 
 
 
3.35

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in this offering
 
 
 
$
1.39

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 10,548,523 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $4.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 28, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $50,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $4.74 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an increase to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $3.52 and an increase in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.22, after deducting commissions payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $4.74 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a decrease to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $3.12 and a decrease in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.62, after deducting commissions payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only, and will adjust based on the actual offering prices, the actual number of shares that we offer and sell in this offering and other terms of each sale of shares in this offering.

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The information above and in the foregoing table is based upon 28,331,344 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019. The information above and in the foregoing table excludes as of March 31, 2019:
3,564,631 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.85 per share;
484,339 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of March 31, 2019;
375,231 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan; and
553,142 shares of common stock reserved for the future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital in the future through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that any of our outstanding options are exercised, new options are issued under our equity incentive plans or we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS
The following discussion is a summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations for non-U.S. holders (as defined below) with respect to their ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering. For purposes of this discussion, a non-U.S. holder means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
a non-resident alien individual;
a corporation or other organization taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is created or organized in or under laws other than the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;
an estate the income of which is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis; or
a trust the income of which is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis and that (1) is not subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States or over which no U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions and (2) has not made an election to be treated as a U.S. person.
This discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or other entities or arrangements that are classified as partnerships or other pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes or persons that hold their common stock through partnerships or other pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her or its tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.
This discussion is based on current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such change or differing interpretation could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus. There can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, which we refer to as the IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described herein. We assume in this discussion that a non-U.S. holder holds shares of our common stock as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, generally property held for investment.
This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes, the alternative minimum tax, the rules regarding qualified small business stock within the meaning of Section 1202 of the Code, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any other aspect of any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:
insurance companies;
tax-exempt or governmental organizations;
financial institutions;
brokers or dealers in securities or persons who have elected to mark securities to market;
regulated investment companies;
pension plans;

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“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;
“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(I)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;
partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and partners and investors therein);
persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;
persons that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment;
persons that own, or have owned, actually or constructively, more than 5% of our common stock (except to the extent specifically set forth below);
persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and
certain U.S. expatriates.
This discussion is for general information only and is not tax advice. Accordingly, all prospective non-U.S. holders of our common stock should consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our common stock.
Distributions on Our Common Stock
As described in the “Risk Factors” section above, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Distributions, if any, on our common stock will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below in “Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock.” Any such distributions will also be subject to the discussions below under the sections titled “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting” and “FATCA.”
Subject to the discussion in the following two paragraphs in this section, dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.
Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must generally furnish to the applicable withholding agent a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI (or applicable successor form). However, such U.S. effectively connected income, net of specified deductions and credits, is taxed at the same U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

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A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) to the applicable withholding agent and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. This certification must generally be provided to the withholding agent prior to the payment of dividends and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.
Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock
Subject to the discussions below under “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting” and “FATCA,” a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to any U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon such holder’s sale or other taxable disposition of shares of our common stock unless:
the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, is attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by such non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on a net income basis at the U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code) and, if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock” also may apply;
the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence) on the gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided that the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or
we are, or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such sale or other taxable disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a U.S. real property holding corporation, unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder holds no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, during the shorter of the 5-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. Generally, a corporation is a U.S. real property holding corporation only if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we do not believe that we are, or have been, a U.S. real property holding corporation, or that we are likely to become one in the future. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rules described above. If we are a U.S. real property holding corporation and either our common stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market or a non-U.S. holder holds, or is treated as holding, more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the applicable testing period, such non-U.S. holder will generally be taxed on any gain in the same manner as gain that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, except that the branch profits tax generally will not apply. If we are a U.S. real property holding corporation and our common stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market, a non-U.S. holder’s proceeds received on the disposition of shares will also generally be subject to withholding at a rate of 15%. Prospective investors are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible consequences to them if we are, or were to become, a U.S. real property holding corporation.

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Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a United States person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock,” generally will be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.
Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker.
Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them. Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is filed with the IRS in a timely manner.
FATCA
Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on payments of dividends on our common stock paid to a foreign entity unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, if any, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise exempt under FATCA. FATCA also currently applies to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock, although under proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, no withholding would apply to such gross proceeds. The preamble to the proposed regulations specifies that taxpayers (including withholding agents) are permitted to rely on the proposed regulations pending finalization. Under certain circumstances, a non-U.S. holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of this withholding tax. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this paragraph. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this legislation on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald acting as agent. The Sales Agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part.
Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Cantor Fitzgerald may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at-the-market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct Cantor Fitzgerald not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.
Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the Sales Agreement, we will notify Cantor Fitzgerald of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed Cantor Fitzgerald, unless Cantor Fitzgerald declines to accept the terms of the notice, Cantor Fitzgerald has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Cantor Fitzgerald under the Sales Agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.
We will pay Cantor Fitzgerald commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse Cantor Fitzgerald for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel, in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding discounts and commissions payable to Cantor Fitzgerald under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $300,000.
Settlement for sales of common stock will generally occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Cantor Fitzgerald in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cantor Fitzgerald may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Cantor Fitzgerald will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the common stock shares under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor Fitzgerald against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and Cantor Fitzgerald may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon 10 days’ prior notice.
Any portion of the $50,000,000 included in this Sales Agreement prospectus that is not previously sold or included in an active placement notice pursuant to the Sales Agreement is available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the Sales Agreement, the full $200,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

S-21


Cantor Fitzgerald and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Cantor Fitzgerald will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.
This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Cantor Fitzgerald and Cantor Fitzgerald may distribute this prospectus electronically.

S-22


LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with this offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, MA. Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an emphasis of matter paragraph relating to the Company's requirement for additional financing to fund future operations as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC. This prospectus, filed as part of the registration statement, does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, portions of which have been omitted as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information about us, we refer you to the registration statement and to its exhibits and schedules. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC.
We are subject to the reporting and information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).  Written requests for such copies should be directed to Neon Therapeutics, Inc., 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Attention: Investor Relations, and our website is located at www.neontherapeutics.com.
We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock” in the base prospectus. We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of this prospectus, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 11, 2019;

S-23


the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed), which was filed with the SEC on April 26, 2019;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 13, 2019;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 22, 2019, and June 20, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 22, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.
We incorporate by reference any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless specifically stated to the contrary, information that we furnish (and that is not deemed “filed” with the SEC) under Items 2.02 and 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, including the related exhibits under Item 9.01, is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference will be modified or superseded for all purposes to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document that is subsequently filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or is contrary to that previous statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed a part of this prospectus, except as so modified or superseded. Since information that we later file with the SEC will update and supersede previously incorporated information, you should look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any documents previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded.
Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered therewith. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address: Neon Therapeutics, Inc., 40 Erie Street, Suite 110, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Attention: Investor Relations.
You may also access these documents, free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or on our website at www. neontherapeutics.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed from, our website as part of this prospectus.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

S-24










http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=8

Up to $50,000,000
Common Stock
 
PROSPECTUS
 
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12991140&doc=9
                       , 2019






Part II – INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The expenses payable by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered (other than underwriting discounts and commissions, if any) are set forth below. Each item listed is estimated, except for the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, registration fee.
SEC registration fee
$
24,240

FINRA filing fee
 
30,500

Legal fees and expenses
 
*

Accounting fees and expenses
 
*

Printing fees and expenses
 
*

Transfer agent and trustee fees
 
*

Miscellaneous
 
*

Total
$
*

_________________
*
Estimated expenses not presently known.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities arising out of actions, suits and proceedings to which they are made or threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that they have served or are currently serving as a director or officer to a corporation. The indemnity may cover expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the director or officer in connection with any such action, suit or proceeding. Section 145 permits corporations to pay expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by directors and officers in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding. In addition, Section 145 provides that a corporation has the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of its directors and officers against any liability asserted against them and incurred by them in their capacity as a director or officer, or arising out of their status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the director or officer against such liability under Section 145.
We have adopted provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:
any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
any unlawful payments related to dividends or unlawful stock purchases, redemptions or other distributions; or
any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

II-1


In addition, our bylaws provide that:
we will indemnify our directors, officers and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain employees to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended; and
we will advance reasonable expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and, in the discretion of our board of directors, to our officers and certain employees, in connection with legal proceedings relating to their service for or on behalf of us, subject to limited exceptions.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors, our executive officers and certain of our other employees. These agreements provide that we will indemnify each of our directors, executive officers and these other employees and, at times, their affiliates to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We will advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees (but excluding judgments, fines and settlement amounts), to each indemnified director, executive officer or affiliate in connection with any proceeding in which indemnification is available and we will indemnify our directors, executive officers and these other employees for any action or proceeding arising out of that person’s services as a director, officer or employee brought on behalf of us and/or in furtherance of our rights. Additionally, each of our directors may have certain rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses and/or insurance provided by their affiliates, which indemnification relates to and might apply to the same proceedings arising out of such director’s services as a director referenced herein. Nonetheless, we have agreed in the indemnification agreements that our obligations to those same directors are primary and any obligation of the affiliates of those directors to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the expenses or liabilities incurred by those directors are secondary.
We also maintain general liability insurance that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

II-2


Item 16. Exhibits
EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit
No.
 
Description
1.1*
 
Form of Underwriting Agreement
 
 
 
1.2
 
 
 
 
3.1
 
 
 
 
3.2
 
 
 
 
4.1
 
 
 
 
4.2
 
 
 
 
4.3
 
 
 
 
4.4
 
 
 
 
4.5*
 
Form of Certificate of Designations
 
 
 
4.6*
 
Form of Warrant Agreements
 
 
 
4.7*
 
Form of Unit Agreement and Unit Certificate
 
 
 
4.8*
 
Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
 
 
 
4.9
 
Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2
 
 
 
5.1
 
 
 
 
5.2
 
 
 
 
23.1
 
 
 
 
23.2
 
 
 
 
23.3
 
 
 
 
24.1
 
 
 
 
25.1**
 
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
 
 
 
25.2**
 
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
_________________
*
To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this registration statement, including a Current Report on Form 8-K.
**
To be filed by amendment pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

II-3


Item 17. Undertakings
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (l)(i), (l)(ii) and (l)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement;
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering;
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(l)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is

II-4


part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser;
(6)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;
(7)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue;
(8)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective;
(9)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; and

II-5


(10)
To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

II-6


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Cambridge, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on this 1st day of July, 2019.
NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
 
By:
/s/ Hugh O’Dowd
 
Hugh O’Dowd
 
President, Chief Executive Officer and Principal Executive Officer
KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby severally constitutes and appoints each of Hugh O’Dowd and Yasir B. Al-Wakeel, B.M.B.Ch., and each of them singly, as such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including, without limitation, post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that any said attorney-in-fact and agent, or any substitute or substitutes of any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Hugh O’Dowd
 
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
July 1, 2019
Hugh O’Dowd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Yasir B. Al-Wakeel
 
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer and
Principal Accounting Officer)
 
July 1, 2019
Yasir B. Al-Wakeel, B.M.B.Ch.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Bazemore
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Robert Bazemore
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Kamen
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Robert Kamen, Ph.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Eric S. Lander
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Eric S. Lander, Ph.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Stephen A. Sherwin
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Stephen A. Sherwin, M.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Cary G. Pfeffer
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Cary G. Pfeffer, M.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Tepper
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Robert Tepper, M.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Meryl Zausner
 
Director
 
July 1, 2019
Meryl Zausner
 
 

II-7
Exhibit
Exhibit 1.2

NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
Shares of Common Stock
(par value $0.001 per share)
Controlled Equity OfferingSM 
Sales Agreement
July 1, 2019
Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
499 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Neon Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (the “Agent”), as follows:
1.    Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent, shares of common stock (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agent such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Common Stock.
The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange

-1-


Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es), is herein called the “Prospectus.”
Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (defined below) shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).
2.    Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Agent declines in writing, by any means provided for under Section 13, to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the

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entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company delivers a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.
3.    Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.
4.    Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agent, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii)

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the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.
5.    Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.
(a)    Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.
(b)    Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority in respect of such sales.
(c)     Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Agent will be responsible for providing the instructions for delivery with regard to the issuance of Placement Shares being sold. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses of its outside counsel), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable)

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and (ii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.
(d)    Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.
(e)    Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.
6.    Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below) unless such representation or warranty specifies a different time:
(a)    Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agent as the agent in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agent and its counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agent has consented (which consent will not be unreasonably conditioned, withheld or

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delayed). The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “NTGN.” The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act, delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange.
(b)    No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.
(c)    Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.
(d)    Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S‑T.
(e)    Organization. The Company has been duly incorporated, is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, has the corporate power and authority to own or lease its property and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not

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reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(f)    Subsidiaries. Each subsidiary of the Company has been duly incorporated, is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, has the corporate power and authority to own its property and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole; all of the issued shares of capital stock of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly by the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims.
(g)    Authorization; Enforceability. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles.
(h)    Capitalization. The authorized capital stock of the Company conforms as to legal matters to the description thereof contained under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” and in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
(i)    Authorization of Placement Common Stock. The shares of Common Stock outstanding prior to the issuance of the Placement Shares have been duly authorized and are validly issued, fully paid and non‑assessable.
(j)    Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.
(k)    Company Stock Plans. With respect to the stock options granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each grant of a stock option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such stock option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee or delegate thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, and (ii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, and all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including all applicable federal securities laws.

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(l)    No Contravention; No Consents Required. The execution and delivery by the Company of, and the performance by the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will not contravene any provision of (i) applicable law, (ii) the certificate of incorporation or by‑laws of the Company, (iii) any agreement or other instrument binding upon the Company or any of its subsidiaries that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or (iv) any judgment, order or decree of any governmental body, agency or court having jurisdiction over the Company or any subsidiary, except that, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company or on the power and ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement; and no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or qualification with, any governmental body or agency is required for the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement, except such as may be required by the securities or Blue Sky laws of the various states in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares.
(m)    No Material Adverse Change. There has not occurred any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business or operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, from that set forth in the Prospectus.
(n)    No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its respective certificate of incorporation or bylaws; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority applicable to the Company, any of its subsidiaries or their respective businesses and properties, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(o)    No Litigation. There are no legal or governmental proceedings pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or to which any of the properties of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject (i) other than proceedings accurately described in all material respects in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and proceedings that would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or on the power or ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate the transactions contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (i) that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and are not so described in all material respects; and there are no statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not described in all material respects or filed as required.
(p)    Investment Company Act. The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus will not be, required to register as an “investment company” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

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(q)    Environmental Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (“Environmental Laws”), (i) have received all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses and (i) are in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval, except where such noncompliance with Environmental Laws, failure to receive required permits, licenses or other approvals or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(r)    Cost of Environmental Compliance. There are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean‑up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties) which would, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(s)    No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1‑02 of Regulation S‑X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, rights of co-sale, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii)  no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.
(t)    No Improper Practices. (i) None of the Company or its subsidiaries or affiliates, or any director or officer of the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, representative or employee of the Company or of any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the payment, giving or receipt of money, property, gifts, benefits, or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any government official (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) (“Government Official”) in order to influence official action, or to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws; (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries and affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have instituted and maintained and will continue to maintain policies and procedures reasonably designed to promote and achieve compliance with such laws and with the representations and warranties contained herein; and (iii) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in

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furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money, or anything else of value, to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws.
(u)    Operations. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental or regulatory agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental or regulatory agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.
(v)    Sanctions. (i) None of the Company, any of its subsidiaries, or any director, officer, or employee thereof, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by one or more Persons that are:
(1)    the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), or
(2)    located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).
(ii)    The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:
(1)    to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or
(2)    in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).
(iii)    For the past five years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not engaged in, are not now engaged in, and will not engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.
(w)    No Material Adverse Change. Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries have not incurred any material liability or obligation, direct or contingent, nor entered into any material transaction; (i) the Company has not purchased any of its outstanding capital stock, nor

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declared, paid or otherwise made any dividend or distribution of any kind on its capital stock other than ordinary and customary dividends; and (i) there has not been any material change in the capital stock, short‑term debt or long‑term debt of the Company and its subsidiaries, except in each case as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, respectively.
(x)    Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property and good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them which is material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company and its subsidiaries, in each case except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
(y)    Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its subsidiaries own, have obtained licenses to or can acquire on reasonable terms sufficient patent rights, inventions, trademarks, trade names, service marks, logos, trade dress, designs, data, database rights, Internet domain names, copyrights, works of authorship, trade secrets, know-how and proprietary information (including unpatented and unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) and other intellectual property rights (collectively, “Intellectual Property Rights”) necessary or material to the conduct of the business as described in the Registration Statement, the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus, except where any failure to own, possess or acquire such Intellectual Property Rights would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect. Such Intellectual Property Rights owned by or licensed to the Company have not been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, to the Company’s knowledge: (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property Rights of the Company or its subsidiaries except for (a) customary retained and reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property Rights licensed to the Company or its subsidiaries, (b) non-exclusively licensed Intellectual Property Rights, where the licensor may provide licenses to a third party and (c) third parties who have been explicitly granted licenses by the Company and (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property Rights of the Company or its subsidiaries. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by any third party: (A) challenging the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ rights in or to any of their Intellectual Property Rights; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights of the Company; or (C) asserting that the Company infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate, or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others. The Company and its subsidiaries have complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property Rights have been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps necessary to

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secure their interests in the Company owned Intellectual Property Rights from their employees and contractors and to protect the confidentiality of all of their confidential information and trade secrets, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure, confidentiality agreements, invention assignment agreements and invention assignments with their employees, and to the Company’s knowledge, no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment agreement, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement, or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company fall within the scope of one or more claim of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company. To the Company's knowledge, the duties of candor and good faith required by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”), including citation of material prior art that the Company is aware of, during the prosecution of Company owned United States patents and patent applications included in the Intellectual Property Rights have been complied with.
(z)    Intellectual Property Rights. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company owned Intellectual Property Rights or technology (including information technology and outsourced arrangements) employed by the Company or its subsidiaries has been obtained or is being used by the Company or its subsidiary in violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or its subsidiaries or any of their respective officers, directors or employees or otherwise in violation of the rights of any persons.
(aa)    ERISA. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, (A) each Plan (as defined below) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); (B) no non-exempt prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan; (C) for each Plan, no failure to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA), whether or not waived, has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (D) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA, other than those events as to which notice is waived) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; and (E) neither the Company nor any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any organization which is a member of a controlled group of corporations within the meaning of Section 414 of the Code) has incurred, nor is reasonably expected to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to any Plan or any Multiemployer Plan or premiums to the PBGC, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan or a Multiemployer Plan. For purposes of this paragraph, (x) the term “Plan” means an employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA, subject to Title IV of ERISA, but excluding any Multiemployer Plan, for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” has any liability and (y) the term “Multiemployer Plan” means a multiemployer plan within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA.
(bb)    Labor Disputes. No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists, except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent; and the Company is not aware of any existing,

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threatened or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors that could have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(cc)    Insurance. The Company and each of its subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
(dd)    Consents and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.
(ee)    Internal Controls. The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (i) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and to maintain asset accountability; (i) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (i) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (i) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (ii) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(ff)    Financial Information. The financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, comply as to form in all material respects with the applicable accounting requirements of the Securities Act and present fairly the financial position of the Company as of the dates indicated and the results of its operations and cash flows for the periods specified. Such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except in the case of unaudited, interim financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission. The other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby. The interactive

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data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.
(gg)    Independent Public Accounting Firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to certain of the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries filed with the Commission as part of the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.
(hh)    Statistical and Market-Related Data.  The statistical, industry and market related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate. To the Company’s knowledge, after reasonable investigation, it does not require the consent of any third party for the use of any such data except as already obtained.
(ii)    Disclosure Controls. To the extent required under applicable rules, the Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures that comply with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”); such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company and its subsidiaries is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others within those entities; and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
(jj)    Taxes. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date of this Agreement or have requested extensions thereof (except where the failure to file would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect) and have paid all taxes required to be paid thereon (except for cases in which the failure to file or pay would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect, or, except as are currently being contested in good faith and for which reserves required by U.S. GAAP have been created in the financial statements of the Company), and no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries which has had (nor does the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have any notice or knowledge of any tax deficiency which would reasonably be expected to be determined adversely to the Company or its subsidiaries and which would reasonably be expected to have) a material adverse effect.
(kk)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, it will be in compliance, to the extent required, with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company at such time, and is taking steps designed to ensure that it will be in compliance, at all times, with the other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act when they become applicable to the Company after the effectiveness of the Registration Statement.
(ll)    Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute,

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the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.
(mm)    Data Privacy and Cyber Security. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have complied, and are presently in material compliance, with their privacy and security policies, and with all obligations, laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, transfer, storage, protection, disposal or disclosure of personally identifiable information or any other information collected from or provided by third parties. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable steps to protect the information technology systems and data used in connection with the operation of the Company or its subsidiaries. The Company and its subsidiaries have used reasonable efforts to establish, and have established, commercially reasonable disaster recovery and security plans, procedures and facilities for the business, including, without limitation, for the information technology systems and data held or used by or for the Company or any of its subsidiaries. There has been no material security breach or attack or other compromise of or relating to any such information technology system or data.
(nn)    Clinical Studies. The preclinical tests and clinical trials, and other studies (collectively, “studies”) that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls designed and approved for such studies and with standard and applicable medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such studies, and the Company has no knowledge of any other studies the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; the Company has made all such filings and obtained all such approvals or authorizations as may be required by the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or from any other U.S. or foreign government or drug regulatory agency, or health care facility Institutional Review Board (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”), except where the failure to make such filing or obtain such approval would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, result in a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole; except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not received any notice of, or correspondence from, any Regulatory Agency requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any clinical trials that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement; and the Company has operated and currently is in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules and regulations of the Regulatory Agencies.
(oo)    Compliance with Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all applicable Health Care Laws except where failure to be in compliance would not be expected reasonably to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” means: (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. False Statements Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), the Civil Monetary Penalties Law (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7a), the U.S. Civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the

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health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the exclusion law (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7), the statutes, regulations and directives of applicable federal healthcare programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(f)), and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes, including but not limited to Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act) and Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act); (iii) the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (the “Privacy Rule”), the Security Standards, and the Standards for Electronic Transactions and Code Sets promulgated under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof or other law or regulation the purpose of which is to protect the privacy of individuals or prescribers; (iv) the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, the regulations promulgated thereunder; (v) the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. Section 801 et seq.); and (vi) any and all other applicable health care laws and regulation applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, advertising, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries has received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that it is in material violation of any Health Care Laws, and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action is threatened. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries is a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company nor any of its employees, officers or directors, nor its subsidiaries or any of the subsidiary’s employees, officers or directors has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any federal health care program (as defined in 42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(f)) or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in such debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by the Health Care Laws, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were timely, complete, accurate and not misleading on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission).
(pp)    Market Capitalization. At the time the Registration Statement was or will be originally declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3. The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

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(qq)    No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10‑K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
(rr)    Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).
(ss)    No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.
(tt)    Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to Agent pursuant to this Agreement.
(uu)    Underwriter Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.
(vv)    Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward-Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.
(ww)    Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent.
(xx)    Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.
(yy)    Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

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(zz)    No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 23 below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.
(aaa)    Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with.
(bbb)    Emerging Growth Company Status. From the time of the initial filing of the Company’s first registration statement with the Commission through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).
Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.
7.    Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agent that:
(a)    Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, based on advice of counsel, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not objected in writing thereto within two (2) Business Days (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by

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the Company in this Agreement and (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object such filing if such filing does not name the Agent or does not relate to the Placement Shares or to the transactions contemplated hereunder, and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).
(b)    Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.
(c)    Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect

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such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interests of the Company to do so.
(d)    Listing of Placement Shares. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.
(e)    Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the reasonable expense of the Company) a reasonable number of copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.
(f)    Earning Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earning statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.
(g)    Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
(h)    Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth (60th) day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock, other equity awards to acquire Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, employee stock purchase plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to

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a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options, convertible securities or other rights in effect or outstanding and the vesting of restricted stock units, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent,(iii) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes, and (iv) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock (A) in connection with strategic transactions, including (1) joint ventures, manufacturing, marketing, sponsored research, collaboration, license or distribution arrangements or (2) technology transfer or development arrangements and/or (B) to suppliers or third party service providers in connection with the provision of good or services, in each case of this clause (iv) which are not issued primarily for capital raising purposes.
(i)    Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.
(j)    Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.
(k)    Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company shall disclose, in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K to be filed by the Company with the Commission from time to time, the number of the Placement Shares sold through the Agent under this Agreement, and the net proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.
(l)    Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time during the terms of this Agreement that a Placement Notice is outstanding the Company:
(i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement

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Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;
(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);
(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or
(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);
the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8‑K is material) with a certificate dated the Representation Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived without any action on the part of the Agent or the Company for any Representation Date occurring at a time a Suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when a Suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.
(m)    Legal Opinion. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agent no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except

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that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).
(n)    Comfort Letter. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a Current Report on Form 8-K containing material financial statements, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.
(o)    Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.
(p)    Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.
(q)    No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder (such approval by the Agent not to be unreasonably conditioned, delayed or withheld), neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.
(r)    Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided,

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however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).
(s)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or the Subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.
(t)    Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agent a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, (ii) the By-laws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.
(u)    Emerging Growth Company Status. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the Company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time during the term of this

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Agreement, other than if the Company loses its status as an Emerging Growth Company due to the passage of time since the Company’s initial public offering.
8.    Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the fees and expenses of Agent including but not limited to the reasonable and documented fees and expenses of the counsel to the Agent in an amount not to exceed $50,000, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agent’s counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of any Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agent shall reasonably deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of the blue sky survey, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the fees of the Agent’s counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.
9.    Conditions to Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:
(a)    Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agent and not yet sold by the Agent and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.
(b)    No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any statement of a

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material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(c)    No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.
(d)    Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole or any development that would cause a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.
(e)    Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(m).
(f)    Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).
(g)    Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).
(h)    No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.
(i)    Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may reasonably

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request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.
(j)    Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.
(k)    Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.
(l)    FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.
(m)    No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).
10.    Indemnification and Contribution.
(a)    Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent or any affiliate within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:
(i)    against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;
(ii)    against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and
(iii)    against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of outside counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any

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Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission (whether or not a party), to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,
provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information (as defined below).
(b)    Agent Indemnification. Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agent has furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the ninth and tenth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (the “Agent Information”).
(c)    Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 10 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying

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party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action or counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, in each case, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action; in each of which cases the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of outside counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate outside firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party (which consent shall not be unreasonably conditioned, withheld or delayed), settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an express and unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.
(d)    Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 10(a)(ii) effected without its written consent if (1) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (2) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (3) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.
(e)    Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim,

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liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, any affiliates of the Agent and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent or any of its affiliates, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof.
11.    Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.
12.    Termination.
(a)    The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any change, or any development or event involving a prospective change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the business, properties, earnings, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, which individually or in

-30-


the aggregate, in the sole judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices).
(b)    The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(c)    The Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(d)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect.
(e)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

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13.    Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:
Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
499 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Attention:    Capital Markets
Facsimile:    (212) 307-3730
and:
Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
499 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Attention:    General Counsel
Facsimile:    (212) 829-4708
with a copy to:
Cooley LLP
55 Hudson Yards
New York, NY 10001-2157
Attention:
Daniel I. Goldberg, Esq.
Facsimile:
(212) 479-6275
and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:
Neon Therapeutics, Inc.
40 Erie Street, Suite 110
Cambridge, MA 02139
Attention:    Jolie Siegel, VP, General Counsel and Secretary
Facsimile:    (857) 228-6200
with a copy to:
Goodwin Procter LLP
100 Northern Ave.
Boston, MA 02210
Attention:    Arthur McGivern
Facsimile:    (617) 801-8626
Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-

-32-


recognized overnight courier and (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.
An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.
14.    Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the parties referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent.
15.    Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.
16.    Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.
17.    GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH

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THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.
18.    CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.
19.    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.
20.    Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
21.    Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Agent, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,

-34-


including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 21 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.
22.    Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:
(a)    the Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;
(b)    it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
(c)    neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;
(d)    it is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and
(e)    it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.
23.    Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:
Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iii) each Settlement Date.
Governmental Authority means (i) any federal, provincial, state, local, municipal, national or international government or governmental authority, regulatory or administrative agency, governmental commission, department, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, court, tribunal, arbitrator or arbitral body (public or private); (ii) any self-regulatory organization; or (iii) any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

-35-


Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act Regulations.
Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.
All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.
All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.
[Signature Page Follows]

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.
Very truly yours,
 
 
 
 
NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Hugh O'Dowd
 
Name:  Hugh O’Dowd
 
Title:    President and Chief Executive Officer
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
 
 
 
 
CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.
 
 
By:
/s/ Sage Kelly
 
Name:  Sage Kelly
 
Title:    Global Head of Investment Banking



SCHEDULE 1
 
 
 
Form of Placement Notice
 
 
 
From:
Neon Therapeutics, Inc.
 
 
To:
Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
 
Attention:  [•]
 
 
Subject:
Placement Notice
 
 
Date:
[•], 201[•]
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Neon Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Agent”), dated July 1, 2019, the Company hereby requests that the Agent sell up to [•] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].



SCHEDULE 2
 
 
 
Compensation
 
 
 
The Company shall pay to the Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.



SCHEDULE 3
 
 
 
Notice Parties
 
 
 
The Company
Hugh O’Dowd (hodowd@neontherapeutics.com)
Yasir B. Al-Wakeel (yalwakeel@neontherapeutics.com)
Jolie Siegel (jsiegel@neontherapeutics.com)
Seth Harmon (sharmon@neontherapeutics.com)
The Agent
Sameer Vasudev (svasudev@cantor.com)
With copies to:
CFControlledEquityOffering@cantor.com



SCHEDULE 4
 
 
 
Subsidiaries
 
 
 
Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 of the Company’s most recently filed Form 10-K.



Exhibit 21
Permitted Free Writing Prospectus
None.

Exhibit
Exhibit 4.3







NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.,
Issuer
AND
[TRUSTEE],
Trustee
 
INDENTURE
Dated as of [•]
 
Senior Debt Securities




TABLE OF CONTENTS1
 
 
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS
1

Section 1.01
Definitions of Terms
1

 
 
 
ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
5

 
 
 
Section 2.01
Designation and Terms of Securities
5

Section 2.02
Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate
8

Section 2.03
Denominations: Provisions for Payment
8

Section 2.04
Execution and Authentications
10

Section 2.05
Registration of Transfer and Exchange
11

Section 2.06
Temporary Securities
12

Section 2.07
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities
12

Section 2.08
Cancellation
13

Section 2.09
Benefits of Indenture
13

Section 2.10
Authenticating Agent
14

Section 2.11
Global Securities
14

 
 
 
ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
15

 
 
 
Section 3.01
Redemption
15

Section 3.02
Notice of Redemption
15

Section 3.03
Payment Upon Redemption
17

Section 3.04
Sinking Fund
17

Section 3.05
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities
17

Section 3.06
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund
18

 
 
 
ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS
18

 
 
 
Section 4.01
Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest
18

Section 4.02
Maintenance of Office or Agency
18

Section 4.03
Paying Agents
19

Section 4.04
Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee
20

Section 4.05
Compliance with Consolidation Provisions
20

 
 
 
ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
20

 
 
 
Section 5.01
Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders
20

Section 5.02
Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders
20

Section 5.03
Reports by the Company
21

Section 5.04
Reports by the Trustee
21

 
 
 
ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
22

 
 
 
Section 6.01
Events of Default
22


_________________________
1 This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.
i


Section 6.02
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee
24

Section 6.03
Application of Moneys Collected
25

Section 6.04
Limitation on Suits
25

Section 6.05
Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver
26

Section 6.06
Control by Securityholders
26

Section 6.07
Undertaking to Pay Costs
27

 
 
 
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
27

 
 
 
Section 7.01
Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee
27

Section 7.02
Certain Rights of Trustee
29

Section 7.03
Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities
30

Section 7.04
May Hold Securities
31

Section 7.05
Moneys Held in Trust
31

Section 7.06
Compensation and Reimbursement
31

Section 7.07
Reliance on Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel
32

Section 7.08
Disqualification; Conflicting Interests
32

Section 7.09
Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility
32

Section 7.10
Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor
33

Section 7.11
Acceptance of Appointment By Successor
34

Section 7.12
Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business
35

Section 7.13
Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company
35

Section 7.14
Notice of Default
35

 
 
 
ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
36

 
 
 
Section 8.01
Evidence of Action by Securityholders
36

Section 8.02
Proof of Execution by Securityholders
36

Section 8.03
Who May be Deemed Owners
37

Section 8.04
Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded
37

Section 8.05
Actions Binding on Future Securityholders
37

 
 
 
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
38

 
 
 
Section 9.01
Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders
38

Section 9.02
Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders
39

Section 9.03
Effect of Supplemental Indentures
39

Section 9.04
Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures
39

Section 9.05
Execution of Supplemental Indentures
40

 
 
 
ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY
40

 
 
 
Section 10.01
Company May Consolidate, Etc
40

Section 10.02
Successor Entity Substituted
41

 
 
 
ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
41

 
 
 
Section 11.01
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture
41


ii


Section 11.02
Discharge of Obligations
42

Section 11.03
Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust
42

Section 11.04
Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents
42

Section 11.05
Repayment to Company
43

 
 
 
ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
43

 
 
 
Section 12.01
No Recourse
43

 
 
 
ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
44

 
 
 
Section 13.01
Effect on Successors and Assigns
44

Section 13.02
Actions by Successor
44

Section 13.03
Surrender of Company Powers
44

Section 13.04
Notices
44

Section 13.05
Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver
44

Section 13.06
Treatment of Securities as Debt
45

Section 13.07
Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent
45

Section 13.08
Payments on Business Days
45

Section 13.09
Conflict with Trust Indenture Act
45

Section 13.10
Counterparts
46

Section 13.11
Separability
46

Section 13.12
Compliance Certificates
46

Section 13.13
USA PATRIOT ACT
46

Section 13.14
Calculations
46

 
 
 
TRUST INDENTURE ACT CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE
A-1


iii


INDENTURE
INDENTURE, dated as of [•], among NEON THERAPEUTICS, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE] as trustee (the “Trustee”):
WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;
WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and binding agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:
ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS
Section 1.01    Definitions of Terms.
The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.
Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.
Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

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Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification and delivered to the Trustee.
Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or at a place of payment, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.
Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.
Company” means Neon Therapeutics, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article 10, shall also include its successors and assigns.
Company Order” means a written order of the Company, signed by an Officer of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee.
Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be administered, which office at the date hereof is located at .
Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.
Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.
Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.
Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.
Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

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Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the applicable series of Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.
Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.
Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Chief Financial Officer, a Chief Operating Officer, a General Counsel, any Executive Vice President, any Senior Vice President, any Vice President, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Controller or any Assistant Controller or the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.
Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.
Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.
Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore

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canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article 3, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.
Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.
Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed